MOROS Manual

Boot

During boot MOROS will display its version followed by the memory layout, memory size, processor, devices, network cards, disks, and the real time clock.

[0.250962] MOROS v0.10.1
[0.250962] MEM [0x00000000000000-0x00000000000FFF] FrameZero
[0.250962] MEM [0x00000000001000-0x00000000004FFF] PageTable
[0.250962] MEM [0x00000000005000-0x00000000015FFF] Bootloader
[0.250962] MEM [0x00000000016000-0x00000000016FFF] BootInfo
[0.250962] MEM [0x00000000017000-0x0000000002DFFF] Kernel
[0.250962] MEM [0x0000000002E000-0x0000000009EFFF] KernelStack
[0.250962] MEM [0x0000000009F000-0x0000000009FFFF] Reserved
[0.250962] MEM [0x000000000F0000-0x000000000FFFFF] Reserved
[0.250962] MEM [0x00000000100000-0x0000000028EFFF] KernelStack
[0.250962] MEM [0x0000000028F000-0x000000003FFFFF] Usable
[0.250962] MEM [0x00000000400000-0x000000005E1FFF] Kernel
[0.250962] MEM [0x000000005E2000-0x000000005EFFFF] PageTable
[0.250962] MEM [0x000000005F0000-0x00000001FDFFFF] Usable
[0.250962] MEM [0x00000001FE0000-0x00000001FFFFFF] Reserved
[0.250962] MEM [0x000000FEFFC000-0x000000FEFFFFFF] Reserved
[0.250962] MEM [0x000000FFFC0000-0x000000FFFFFFFF] Reserved
[0.250962] MEM 32720 KB
[0.251962] CPU GenuineIntel
[0.254961] CPU Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-4300M CPU @ 2.60GHz
[0.284957] PCI 0000:00:00 [8086:1237]
[0.312952] PCI 0000:01:00 [8086:7000]
[0.321951] PCI 0000:01:01 [8086:7010]
[0.321951] PCI 0000:01:03 [8086:7113]
[0.322951] PCI 0000:02:00 [1234:1111]
[0.323951] PCI 0000:03:00 [10EC:8139]
[0.377942] NET RTL8139 MAC 52-54-00-12-34-56
[0.382942] ATA 0:0 QEMU HARDDISK QM00001 (32 MB)
[0.384941] MFS Superblock found in ATA 0:0
[0.386941] RTC 2023-04-17 20:00:28 +0000

Installation

The first time MOROS will boot in diskless mode where you can use the builtin commands to test the system or install to setup the filesystem on a disk:

MFS is not mounted to '/'
Running console in diskless mode

/
> install
Welcome to MOROS v0.10.1 installation program!

Proceed? [y/N] y

Listing disks ...
Path            Name (Size)
/dev/ata/0/0    QEMU HARDDISK QM00001 (32 MB)

Formatting disk ...
Enter path of disk to format: /dev/ata/0/0
Disk successfully formatted
MFS is now mounted to '/'

Populating filesystem...
Created '/bin'
Created '/dev'
Created '/ini'
Created '/lib'
Created '/net'
Created '/src'
Created '/tmp'
Created '/usr'
Created '/var'
Copied '/bin/clear'
Copied '/bin/halt'
Copied '/bin/hello'
Copied '/bin/print'
Copied '/bin/reboot'
Copied '/bin/sleep'
Created '/dev/clk'
Created '/dev/clk/uptime'
Created '/dev/clk/realtime'
Created '/dev/rtc'
Created '/dev/null'
Created '/dev/random'
Created '/dev/console'
Copied '/ini/banner.txt'
Copied '/ini/boot.sh'
Copied '/ini/shell.sh'
Copied '/ini/version.txt'
Created '/ini/palettes'
Copied '/ini/palettes/gruvbox-dark.csv'
Copied '/ini/palettes/gruvbox-light.csv'
Created '/ini/fonts'
Copied '/ini/fonts/zap-light-8x16.psf'
Copied '/ini/fonts/zap-vga-8x16.psf'
Created '/lib/lisp'
Copied '/lib/lisp/core.lsp'
Copied '/lib/lisp/alias.lsp'
Copied '/tmp/alice.txt'
Copied '/tmp/machines.txt'
Created '/tmp/lisp'
Copied '/tmp/lisp/colors.lsp'
Copied '/tmp/lisp/factorial.lsp'
Copied '/tmp/lisp/fibonacci.lsp'
Copied '/tmp/lisp/geotime.lsp'
Copied '/tmp/lisp/pi.lsp'
Copied '/tmp/lisp/sum.lsp'
Created '/tmp/life'
Copied '/tmp/life/centinal.cells'
Copied '/tmp/life/flower-of-eden.cells'
Copied '/tmp/life/garden-of-eden.cells'
Copied '/tmp/life/glider-gun.cells'
Copied '/tmp/life/pentadecathlon.cells'
Copied '/tmp/life/queen-bee-shuttle.cells'
Copied '/tmp/life/ship-in-a-bottle.cells'
Copied '/tmp/life/thunderbird.cells'
Copied '/tmp/life/wing.cells'
Created '/tmp/beep'
Copied '/tmp/beep/tetris.sh'
Copied '/tmp/beep/starwars.sh'
Copied '/tmp/beep/mario.sh'
Created '/var/www'
Copied '/var/www/index.html'
Copied '/var/www/moros.png'

Creating user...
Username: vinc
Password:
Confirm:

Installation successful!

Quit the console or reboot to apply changes

You can then use ^D (a key combination of CTRL and D) to quit the diskless mode and let MOROS run the bootscript /ini/boot.sh to login and use the shell.

If no disks were detected or if you prefer not to use them you can mount the system in memory to use a virtual disk with memory format before install.

Shell

The shell is the primary command line interface to use MOROS. This is were you can type a command and its arguments to tell the system what to do:

~
> print "Hello, World!"
Hello, World!

The system has a help command to help you remember the basic commands.

Most commands also have a special --help argument to show all their options.

Directories

The line above the command prompt tells you where you are in the disk. The tilde ~ means that you are in your home directory:

~
> print $DIR
/usr/vinc

You can change directory by typing it as if it was a command:

~
> /tmp

/tmp
> print $DIR
/tmp

From now on we'll omit the directory line in most examples.

You can list the content of a directory with list:

> list /tmp
5090 2023-04-17 06:25:54 alice.txt
  82 2023-04-17 06:25:55 beep
 324 2023-04-17 06:25:55 life
 168 2023-04-17 06:25:55 lisp
 649 2023-04-17 06:25:54 machines.txt

The command has some options to sort the results:

> list --help
Usage: list <options> [<dir>]

Options:
  -a, --all     Show dot files
  -n, --name    Sort by name
  -s, --size    Sort by size
  -t, --time    Sort by time

You can write a directory in the disk with write:

> write test/

> list
5090 2023-04-17 06:25:54 alice.txt
  82 2023-04-17 06:25:55 beep
 324 2023-04-17 06:25:55 life
 168 2023-04-17 06:25:55 lisp
 649 2023-04-17 06:25:54 machines.txt
   0 2023-04-17 07:06:18 test

The slash / at the end of test/ is there to tell the write command to create a directory instead of a file.

Files

You can create a file by redirecting the output of a command with an arrow => to the file:

> print "Hello, World!" => hello.txt

The command read will read the content of the file:

> read hello.txt
Hello, World!

You can edit a file with the edit command that will run the text editor.

Use ^W (a key combination of CTRL and W) inside the editor to write the content to the file and ^Q to quit the editor and go back to the shell.

The help command has a subcommand help edit to list the editor commands:

> help edit
MOROS text editor is a very simple editor inspired by Pico, Nano, and Micro.

Commands:
  ^Q    Quit editor
  ^W    Write to file
  ^X    Write to file and quit
  ^T    Go to top of file
  ^B    Go to bottom of file
  ^A    Go to beginning of line
  ^E    Go to end of line
  ^D    Cut line
  ^Y    Copy line
  ^P    Paste line

Time

You can print the date with date:

> date
2001-01-01 00:00:00 +0000

You can update the real time clock by writing the correct time to its device file:

> print "2023-03-21 10:00:00" => /dev/rtc

> date
2023-03-21 10:00:00 +0000

You can also set the TZ environment variable to use your preferred timezone:

> calc "2 * 60 * 60"
7200

> env TZ 7200

> date
2023-03-21 12:00:00 +0200

Add env TZ 7200 to /ini/boot.sh before shell to save the timezone:

> read /ini/boot.sh
vga set palette /ini/palettes/gruvbox-dark.csv
vga set font /ini/fonts/zap-light-8x16.psf
read /ini/banner.txt
user login
env TZ 7200
shell

There's a device file to get the number of seconds elapsed since Unix Epoch:

> read /dev/clk/realtime
1682105344.624905

And another one since boot:

> read /dev/clk/uptime
1169.384929

Aliases

You can add custom commands to the shell with the alias command.

For example you can define an uptime command that will read the device file described above:

> alias uptime "read /dev/clk/uptime"

> uptime
1406.304852

You can add that command to /ini/shell.sh to save it.

Some shortcuts have been defined in that file for the most frequent commands, for example you can use e instead of edit to edit a file.

> read /ini/shell.sh
# Command shortcuts
alias c    copy
alias d    delete
alias e    edit
alias f    find
alias h    help
alias l    list
alias m    move
alias p    print
alias q    quit
alias r    read
alias w    write

alias sh   shell
alias dsk  disk
alias mem  memory
alias kbd  keyboard

Network

You can setup the network manually with net or automatically with dhcp:

> dhcp
ip:  10.0.2.15/24
gw:  10.0.2.2
dns: 10.0.2.3

A few tools are available like the http command:

> http moros.cc /test.html
<!doctype html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title>MOROS</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/moros.css">
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>MOROS</h1>
  </body>
</html>